As you can download the Asgardia Constitution from the link below or you can read the Constitution Text below. The text of the Constitution was obtained directly from Asgardia.Space.
O F T H E S PA C E K I N G D O M O F A S G A R D I A
|Chapter 1. Declaration of Unity of Asgardia||4|
|Chapter 2. General Provisions||6|
|Article 1. Name of the Nation||6|
|Article 2. Status||6|
|Article 3. Mission||6|
|Article 4. Supreme Values of Asgardia||6|
|Article 5. Territory||7|
|Chapter 3. Space Citizenship of Asgardia||8|
|Article 6. Asgardian Citizens||8|
|Article 7. Location of Citizens||8|
|Article 8. Rights and Freedoms of Citizens||8|
|Article 9. Obligations of Citizens||9|
|Article 10. Guarantees of Citizen Rights and Freedoms||10|
|Chapter 4. Asgardian Resources||12|
|Article 11. Human Resources||12|
|Article 12. Natural Resources||12|
|Article 13. Financial Resources||12|
|Article 14. Scientific Resources||13|
|Article 15. Property||13|
|Chapter 5. Government by the People and Social Justice||15|
|Article 16. Government by the People||15|
|Article 17. Fairness||16|
|Article 18. Equality of Dignity for All||16|
|Article 19. Labour||17|
|Article 20. Social Protection||17|
|Chapter 6. Security in Asgardia||18|
|Article 21. Security Areas||18|
|Article 22. Security of Citizens||18|
|Article 23. Security of Asgardia||19|
|Article 24. Protection of the Earth||19|
|Article 25. Asgardia’s Aerospace Fleet||19|
|Chapter 7. Structure||21|
|Article 26. National symbols||2|
|Article 27. Language||21|
|Article 28. Capital||22|
|Article 29. Foreign Relations||22|
|Article 30. Governance||23|
|Chapter 8. Administration||24|
|Article 31. Legal System||24|
|Article 32. Asgardia’s Head of Nation||25|
|Article 33. Parliament||26|
|Article 34. Government||27|
|Article 35. Court||29|
|Article 36. Supreme Space Council||30|
|Article 37. Prosecutor General’s Office||30|
|Article 38. National Audit Office of Asgardia||30|
|Article 39. National Bank of Asgardia||31|
|Article 40. Decision-Making and Implementation||31|
|Chapter 9. Adoption and Amendment of the Constitution||33|
|Article 41. Adoption of the Constitution||33|
|Article 42. First Constitution||33|
|Article 43. Quorum for Adoption of the Constitution||33|
|Article 44. Amendment of the Constitution||33|
|Article 45. Procedure for Amendment of the Constitution||33|
|Chapter 10. Transitional and Final Provisions||34|
|Article 46. Special rights of the Head of Nation before the election of the Parliament and the formation of the Government||34|
|Article 47. Special procedure for the election of a new Head of Nation||34|
|Article 48. Deadline for the election of the Parliament||34|
|Article 49. Deadline for forming the Government||34|
|Article 50. Effectiveness of the Constitution||34|
We, the people of planet Earth, irrespective of our place of birth, residence, language, gender, race, nationality, religion or citizenship of the existing Earth states, use our free choice, will and conviction, in the desire to:
- unite the future humanity as transethnic, transnational, transreligious, ethical, fair, peaceful, looking into the infinite Universe, based on equality and dignity of every human being;
- resolve differences, conflicts, inequality and imperfections in human history, bring spiritual and scientific practices and human creative achievements to a new level in all their civilizational and cultural multitude, and launch a new era in the history of space humanity;
- based on the Declaration of Unity of Asgardia as an integral part of this Constitution;
have founded Asgardia, the first in human history Space Kingdom, and hereby adopt this Constitution of Asgardia.
C H A P T E R 1.
D E C L A R A T I O N O F U N I T Y O F A S G A R D I A
We, the free people of the first in the history of humanity
based on the birthright of a Human in the universe, adopt this
- Asgardia is a free and unified Space Nation.
- The objectives of Asgardia are:
- To ensure permanent peace in space;
- To ensure equal opportunities in space for all Asgardians, currently residing on Earth, regardless of their Earthly citizenship;
- To promote the welfare of the entire humankind.
- Anyone can become a citizen of Asgardia, conditional on assenting to the Declaration, and abiding by the Constitution and the legislation of Asgardia.
- All citizens of Asgardia are equal, irrespective of their Earthly country of origin, residence, citizenship, race, nationality, gender, religion, language, financial standing, or any other attribute.
- Asgardia respects the laws of and international treaties concluded by the Earth’s States, and wishes to be recognized as having equal status as the Earth’s States.
- Asgardia does not interfere in any affairs of the Earth’s States based on reciprocity.
- Asgardia participates in the global events on Earth, similar to the Earth’s States, based on its membership in the respective international organizations.
- Asgardia respects, complies with, and protects the rights of citizens of the Earth’s States, and protects Asgardia’s citizens in the exceptional nature of their space citizenship.
- Asgardia has no place for political parties. However, every Asgardian can freely participate in the political life on Earth.
- Asgardia mirrors the Earth without reflecting Earthly borders. Nevertheless, in the framework of Earthly laws, every Asgardian can freely live within the borders of any Earth State.
- Asgardia is a nation of free spirit, science, internationalism. Every Asgardian can freely practice any religion of Earth in Asgardia.
- There is no place for the history of Earthly conflicts in Asgardia. Asgardia creates a new peaceful history of the future space humankind.
We, the people of Asgardia, will do everything for the prosperity of our new space nation created by us;
for the safeguarding of our motherland – planet Earth;
and the development of the entire humankind in space.
We are not the best, we are the future.
One humanity – one unity.
This Declaration is a primary document for the creation of the
Space Nation of Asgardia.
C H A P T E R 2.
G E N E R A L P R OV I S I O N S
Article 1. Name of the Nation
The terms “Space Kingdom of Asgardia” and “Asgardia” are synonymous. Article 2. Status
Asgardia is the first independent, free, unitary, and social Space Nation, which is transethnic and secular, is based on morality, fairness, peace, and the equal dignity of every human being, looks to the future and the infinite Universe, and is a Kingdom.
Article 3. Mission
To ensure the existence and development of the Space Kingdom of Asgardia and the new space humanity.
Article 4. Supreme Values of Asgardia
- Asgardia’s Supreme Values shall be the common and permanent foundations of the self-identification of Asgardian citizens, which form the commonality of Asgardian society and lie at the heart of the objectives and activities of Asgardia’s governmental bodies, citizens, and associations.
- The Constitution and laws of Asgardia, as well as the activities of its governmental bodies, shall implement and protect Asgardia’s Supreme Values.
- Asgardia’s absolute supreme value is humanity striving into the infinite future, the infinite Universe, and infinite new Universes.
- Asgardia’s Supreme Values in fulfilling its Mission are:
- peace in space and peaceful settlement of the Universe;
- ensuring equality of opportunity in space for all Asgardian citizens;
- safeguarding all of humanity from space-originating threats;
- unity of space humanity as a community;
- human dignity, human rights and freedoms, and the harmonious development of individuals;
- human happiness, life, love, children and family, and the propagation of human species;
- supremacy of Asgardia’s laws;
- preservation of space environment;
- community and mutual support;
- scientific and artistic creativity, and the belief in the boundless potential of human reason, knowledge, labour, and progress;
- peace, tranquility, safety, security, respect, and confidence;
- morality, fairness, and freedom;
- harmonious existence of individuals, society, and the nation;
- Asgardia’s Supreme Values shall be equally important and equally implemented in the governmental administration. However, the absolute supreme value of Asgardia shall prevail over all Supreme Values.
- Asgardia’s Supreme Values shall apply to the relations with people and the States of Earth, as well as any discovered alien intelligence.
- It is prohibited to undermine or diminish the Supreme Values of Asgardia. Asgardia and its citizens shall implement and protect its Supreme Values from internal and external infringement.
Article 5. Territory
- From a legal perspective, Asgardia’s territory is a digital nation with living citizens on the planet Earth; from a scientific and technological perspective, Asgardia is a nation implemented on a low-Earth orbit in the form of a satellite or an orbital satellite constellation, on Earth, and later on the Moon and on other celestial bodies.
- Asgardia will expand its territory by creating Asgardian localities and by obtaining new localities in space, in low-Earth orbits, and celestial bodies.
- Asgardian localities on Earth are peacefully and lawfully acquired natural hard and liquid surfaces on Earth, and man-made platforms situated on such surfaces.
- Asgardian localities on low-Earth orbits are satellites, orbital satellite constellations, man-made platforms (Arks); measures for safeguarding Earth and Asgardia, and other elements.
- Asgardian localities on celestial bodies are Asgardian celestial entities on the Moon and other objects in the Solar System and elsewhere in the Universe.
- Asgardia expands its territory by obtaining new localities on Earth, in space and on celestial bodies.
- Asgardia will use adjacent territories (hard surfaces, subsurface resources, oceans, atmospheres, space, celestial bodies) in accordance with generally recognised international principles and norms, as well as international treaties to which it is a party.
C H A P T E R 3.
S P A C E C I T I Z E N S H I P O F A S G A R D I A
Article 6. Asgardian Citizens
- Anyone over the age of 18 who agrees to Asgardia’s Declaration of Unity and Constitution, and consciously submits his/her digital personal data to Asgardia’s Space Database may become an Asgardian citizen.
- The space citizenship of Asgardia is a special type of citizenship and does not constitute dual or second citizenship for the purposes of Earth State citizenship. A citizen of an Earth state becoming a space citizen does not confer multiple citizenship status, unless otherwise stipulated by an international treaty to which Asgardia is a party.
- A child gains space citizenship of Asgardia at birth if one or both parents is/are space citizen(s) of Asgardia. A child born before the foundation of Asgardia may become a citizen on the request of his/her parent(s) who is(are) citizen(s) of Asgardia.
- Space citizenship may be terminated by the Asgardian citizen waiving citizenship or by Asgardia revoking citizenship. Space citizenship can also be temporarily suspended by Asgardia.
- Grounds for the revocation or suspension of space citizenship, as well as restrictions on the acceptance of new citizens, shall be set by Asgardia’s laws
Article 7. Location of Citizens
- Asgardian citizens possess the right of free movement in Asgardian localities and the right to choose their location in the Earth States in line with the respective legal, organisational, and physical capabilities.
- An Asgardian citizen’s permanent residence in an Earth State shall not deprive or diminish his/her rights or freedoms, suspend or terminate his/her space citizenship, and annul his/her obligations towards Asgardia.
Article 8. Rights and Freedoms of Citizens
- All human and citizenship rights and freedoms shall be recognised in Asgardia, in accordance with generally recognised international law principles and norms. By law, human rights and freedoms are inalienable and enjoyed by all persons from birth.
- All Asgardian citizens shall be equal.
- Persons, who acquire space citizenship at birth, can exercise rights and shall perform all obligations on reaching full legal age at 18.
- Key Rights and Freedoms of Asgardian Citizens:
- freedom of individual;
- freedom of speech;
- right to participate in the national affairs of Asgardia, both directly and via representatives;
- right to elect and be elected/appointed to Asgardia’s governmental bodies and, participate in referenda;
- right to introduce legislative proposals;
- right to access to information about the activities of governmental bodies and monitor them;
- right to participate in space exploration and universal access to scientific information about space;
- right to personal safety and the safety of home in Asgardia localities;
- right to citizens’ self-governance;
- right to ownership and inheritance;
- right to organise citizen groups on the basis of Asgardia’s laws.
- If any right(s) of an Asgardian is infringed by any natural or juridical person, including by an Asgardian governmental body, he/she shall have the right to seek legal protection and/or remedy in the Court.
- Asgardian citizens may only be extradited to other States on the basis of Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardian citizens possess the right of peaceful and unarmed assembly, without prior approval, in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- The enumeration of specific citizen rights and freedoms in this article shall not be interpreted as negating or limiting other citizenship rights and freedoms stipulated by other articles of Asgardia’s Constitution, laws, and generally recognised human rights and freedoms.
- Citizen rights and freedoms may only be restricted by Asgardia’s laws to the extent authorised by Asgardia’s Constitution, and that is required to protect Asgardia’s national interest, ensure Asgardia’s safety, security, and the performance of its mission and Supreme Values, and protect the rights and legal interests of other Asgardian citizens.
Article 9. Obligations of Citizens
- Asgardian citizens have inalienable and indispensable obligations. Asgardian citizen obligations shall arise from the moment they become citizens of Asgardia.
- Asgardian citizens shall respect and not violate the rights, freedoms, and legal interests of other people.
- All persons within the Asgardian territory shall comply with Asgardia’s Constitution and laws, and regulations effective on Asgardia territory, and respect Asgardia’s Supreme Values.
- Asgardian citizens shall comply with Asgardia’s Constitution and laws, respect and implement its Supreme Values irrespective of their location, unless this results in violation of the law of the State in which they are located.
- Asgardian citizens shall pay voluntarily established taxes and levies in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardian citizens possess the right and obligation to participate in elections and referenda. Systematic derogation of this duty may lead to legal consequences in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardian citizens shall preserve nature and the environment in Asgardia’s localities.
- Protecting Asgardia’s national interests and security, and performing its mission and Supreme Values are obligations of every Asgardian citizen.
- Asgardian citizens shall make a contribution to the creation of Asgardia’s resources to ensure the common good that is commensurate with their ability to do so, in line with the Supreme Values of Asgardia.
- Failure to perform citizenship obligations or failure to perform them properly may lead to permanent revocation of Asgardian citizenship, suspension of Asgardian citizenship, fines, and restriction on and/or permanent revocation of access to Asgardia’s electronic resources in accordance with Asgardia’s laws. The Death penalty is prohibited in Asgardia. The creation of prisons is prohibited in Asgardia.
Article 10. Guarantees of Citizen Rights and Freedoms
- The Government shall guarantee the rights and freedoms of Asgardian citizens by exercising its powers and using available resources.
- The Government is responsible for implementation and protection of the citizens’ rights and freedoms.
- The rights and freedoms of Asgardian citizens are guaranteed using Asgardia’s governmental property, which serves as the material foundation for the exercise of its powers and performance of its obligations.
- The rights and freedoms of Asgardian citizens are guaranteed through the establishment of corresponding obligations of Asgardia in its Constitution and laws.
- The Government shall guarantee that the aims, plans, and development forecasts of Asgardia, as well as the threats and risks to its development, are publicly disclosed.
- The Government shall establish its public opinion and take the same into account when making administrative decisions in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- The Government shall guarantee that any Asgardian legal act may be repealed on the request of Asgardian citizens by means of the appropriate procedure set by Asgardia’s laws.
C H A P T E R 4.
A S G A R D I A N R E S O U R C E S
Article 11. Human Resources
- Asgardia shall encourage the development of human resources.
- Asgardia shall use its own material, financial, and other resources to ensure free access to distance learning, professional qualifications, and scientific and creative work for Asgardian citizens.
- Asgardian citizens have a guaranteed right to free time for self-development and self-improvement, creative and cultural pursuits.
- Asgardia shall work to create jobs and facilitate maximum utilization of the abilities and qualifications of its citizens.
- Asgardia shall support its citizens in leading healthy lifestyles.
Article 12. Natural Resources
- Asgardia’s natural resources will include material objects, energy, and information streams in space environments in the Universe in the Asgardian territory and adjacent environments, in accordance with generally recognised international law principles and norms, as well as international treaties to which it is a party.
- Asgardia shall use space resources in accordance with international space law.
- Asgardia’s natural resources may be exclusively its governmental property, the property of its companies, public-private property, private property, personal property, as well as other property under Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardia shall use all available resources to ensure the safety and sustainability of its natural resources and the space environment, and shall support corresponding initiatives in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
Article 13. Financial Resources
- Asgardia’s financial resources shall comprise national governmental and private finance. Arbitrary seizure of private financial resources is prohibited.
- Asgardia’s currency shall be a monetary unit named SOLAR.
- SOLAR shall be freely exchangeable into all the main Earthly currencies on the free market on the Earth, in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- SOLAR shall be issued by the National Bank of Asgardia in the amount tied to the parameters of the Moon, the Sun, the other celestial bodies set by a special law of Asgardia. The National Bank of Asgardia shall be a lender of last resort.
- Asgardia shall support private and corporate charitable donors and investors.
- Asgardia shall create special national charitable foundations, including the Asgardia Science Foundation, the Asgardia Childhood Foundation, and others, in accordance with the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws. Distribution of foundation assets shall be within the purview of the Government and supervised by the Parliament.
- The Government shall be responsible for the national budget, external financial exchange, the tax system, Asgardia’s public consumption foundations, and charitable foundations.
- Revenue generated from governmental licences and the business activities of Asgardia’s governmental institutions and organisations of any kind shall be paid to the budget of Asgardia in full.
- Asgardia shall recognise the immunity of commercial secrets and bank secrecy.
- The Government shall encourage the development of private business by establishing an appropriate tax and governmental insurance system. Private business shall be regulated by Asgardia’s laws. The tax system and preferential tax terms, including voluntary taxation of the private persons, shall be set by Asgardia’s laws.
Article 14. Scientific Resources
- Asgardia shall be a nation of the supremacy of science and technology, and a nation of ideas. Asgardia shall combine the advantages of information technology in virtual and physical world.
- Asgardia’s hardware and software complex shall comprise a combination of its localities in orbit and celestial bodies.
- Asgardia shall accumulate intellectual resources by digitising and storing the wealth of human knowledge in space.
- Asgardia shall create and store in low-Earth orbit and on celestial bodies a Databank of biological materials from the Earth.
- Science and art may be pursued freely in Asgardia, subject to the Constitution and laws of Asgardia.
- Asgardia’s electronic resources shall include, among others, a secure information and telecommunications network, an electronic mail network, electronic mass media, and television and radio broadcasting.
- Asgardia shall guarantee the rights of authors, inventors, and users of intellectual property in harmony and balance.
Article 15. Property
- Asgardia shall ensure and guarantee the rights and freedoms of citizens, the security, welfare, property, and development of Asgardia, and shall serve the achievement of the common good.
- Asgardia shall recognise exclusive (inalienable) governmental property used for national needs, governmental property that constitutes the wealth of Asgardian citizens used for the common good, private property, personal property, and mixed forms of property.
- Property in Asgardia includes material and non-material objects, such as information and intellectual property.
- Restrictions on property rights, as well as the procedure for circulation and disposal of property, are set by Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardia shall guarantee and protect all types of property equally.
C H A P T E R 5.
G OV E R N M E N T B Y T H E P E O P L E A N D
S O C I A L J U S T I C E
Article 16. Government by the People
- Asgardian citizens shall be the source of Asgardia’s powers.
- The collective will of Asgardian citizens shall be implemented through their participation in elections to Asgardia’s governmental bodies, monitoring these bodies, referenda, and interaction with their representatives in elected governmental bodies.
- Elections to Asgardia’s governmental bodies and citizen participation in developing, making, implementing, and monitoring the performance of administrative decisions shall be conducted using appropriate means, although primarily via electronic voting.
- Prejudice during elections and referenda based on Earthly country of birth, residence, citizenship, race, nationality, gender, religion, language, wealth, and any other attribute is forbidden.
- Asgardia’s governmental bodies and officials shall not intervene in elections, put pressure on citizens, or falsify elections.
- Government by the People in Asgardia shall be guaranteed by:
- establishing a procedure for elections, requirements applicable to candidates, and election time frames;
- ensuring that Asgardia’s governmental body officials can be replaced and setting maximum term limits for government positions;
- court protection of Asgardian citizens’ rights to run for office and be elected;
- public control via electronic resources of the public activities of Asgardia’s governmental bodies, their regular reporting to citizens, provision of open information about different areas of government responsibilities in the format set by Asgardia’s laws;
- establishing procedures that allow citizens to introduce legislative proposals and initiate referenda;
- separation of powers;
- the work of the governmental bodies in accordance with the Supreme Values and the Constitution of Asgardia.
- The supreme form of the expression of public will in Asgardia is a referendum. Referenda shall be used to resolve the most important national matters of Asgardia. Referenda shall be held in accordance with Asgardia’s laws. Article 17. Fairness
- Asgardia shall recognise that every person has an inalienable right to fair treatment and facilitate the enjoyment of this right.
- Asgardia is a nation of social justice, which strives to ensure that citizens enjoy material and spiritual benefits expected by other citizens, society, and the government, and produced by the citizen through labour and production of material and immaterial goods.
- Fairness in Asgardia shall be ensured through respect for the legal interests of all lawful interest groups and striving to balance conflicting interests.
- To ensure fairness, the Government shall encourage:
- the spread of moral ideals;
- equal rights and equality of human dignity;
- governmental support for groups in need, charity, philanthropy, and mutual aid;
- scientific and technological progress.
- The Government shall encourage the work of citizens, citizen associations, including investors and philanthropists, who engage in socially important activities.
Article 18. Equality of Dignity for All
- Asgardia shall recognise the equal dignity of all persons.
- Every Asgardian citizen has the right to have their dignity recognised and protected in life and memory after death. No grounds can be used to diminish human dignity. The dignity of Asgardian citizens shall be protected.
- The views of people and Asgardian citizens about human dignity shall be formed and fostered through education, parenting, propaganda, and the media, in accordance with Asgardia’s Supreme Values.
- Any propaganda of superiority and/or inequality of people is prohibited. Asgardia shall prohibit racist, Nazi, fascist, and other similar ideologies in their historical and new forms.
- The Government shall protect groups of citizens, who find themselves in a difficult position on Asgardian territory, by providing them equal access to food, clothing, shelter, and basic material and immaterial benefits.
- The Government shall seek to reduce inequality of social conditions and opportunities for Asgardian citizens, including those contingent on their Earthly country of residence.
- The Government shall support the establishment of humanism, compassion, and charity in social and economic systems.
Article 19. Labour
- The Government and the society shall encourage labour and seek to increase its value, significance, and prestige.
- Employment rights shall be regulated by Asgardia’s laws in accordance with generally recognised principles and norms of international law.
Article 20. Social Protection
- Social protection of citizens shall take the form of social support and assistance to the needy and pensioners.
- Social protection shall be provided in accordance with Asgardia’s laws and on the basis of approved social standards.
C H A P T E R 6.
S EC U R I T Y I N A S G A R D I A
Article 21. Security Areas
- Asgardia shall safeguard itself and its citizens from space-originating threats.
- Asgardia’s security doctrine is exclusively peaceful and self-protective in its nature.
Article 22. Security of Citizens
- Asgardia shall ensure the security of citizens, and strengthen its ability and the citizens’ ability to overcome threats and minimise risks in the present and future.
- Citizen security shall be ensured in the Asgardian territory.
- Asgardian citizens may demand that Asgardia, in its territory, safeguard them from any slavery or servitude, physical or emotional violence and compulsion, any unlawful dependence and restrictions, and any unlawful obligations or subordination.
- Governmental bodies and diplomatic representative bodies of Asgardia in the Earth States shall use all peaceful means and measures to assist the provision of physical security of its citizens outside of Asgardia, in accordance with Asgardia’s Constitution and laws, generally recognised international principles and norms, international and bilateral treaties, and laws and rules of States in which Asgardian citizens reside.
- Asgardia shall prohibit any propaganda of immoral and antisocial behaviour, and any production and circulation of information on any storage media, which contains mass information, that is harmful to morality and/or aims to undermine or diminish its Supreme Values.
- Any persecution for expression of views and convictions shall be prohibited, provided that such views do not contain propaganda of immorality; seek to undermine or diminish Supreme Values; threaten national security; incite violence and strife; demean the honour and dignity of individuals; disclose restricted information; and otherwise specified by requirements for ensuring information security.
- Asgardia shall guarantee the protection of citizen personal data.
Article 23. Security of Asgardia
- Asgardia shall maintain and safeguard its national interests, national security, and the security of its resources on celestial bodies, in space, and on Earth, using all its abilities, means, and resources.
- Asgardia shall monitor and forecast external and internal threats, and security risks (including space, military, political, informational, economic, and environmental risks), and shall ensure that they are minimised or prevented, or that damage from the realisation of such risks is minimised and their consequences addressed.
- To ensure information security, the Government regulates the circulation of certain types of information on the basis of the Constitution of Asgardia and in accordance with the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws.
- The list of information, as well as the procedure for including it in restricted information, is set by Asgardia’s laws.
- The Government shall ensure the creation of a secure environment for the circulation of accurate information (including electronic databases of scientific research and technical information) and the creation of informational infrastructure that is resistant to different types of impact.
Article 24. Protection of the Earth
- Asgardia shall use governmental and private resources to build capabilities to safeguard the Earth from space-originating threats, independently and in cooperation with the Earth States and international organisations, on the basis of bilateral and multilateral treaties.
- In order to safeguard the planet Earth, Asgardia’s authorised bodies shall:
- monitor the condition and physical processes of potentially dangerous objects in near and outer space, and model and forecast space-originating threats and their potential consequences;
- monitor the condition and physical processes in Earth’s geospheres, and model and forecast their potential consequences;
- monitor Earth’s biosphere and emerging biological threats originating in space, and model and forecast their potential consequences and ways of defending against such threats.
- In order to preserve humanity and biodiversity of the Earth, Asgardia shall organise and ensure the building of Space Arks and protective platforms in space to be used in the event of threats to the safety of humanity on the Earth and for space tourism, in the absence of threats.
Article 25. Asgardia’s Aerospace Fleet
- To safeguard the Earth and its orbital satellite constellation, Asgardia shall create aerospace capabilities and resources.
- The core of the aerospace capabilities shall be formed by universal robotic space platforms.
- The Government controls Asgardia’s aerospace fleet in normal times.
- The Head of Nation and the Parliament may declare a state of emergency, defence, or disaster in accordance with Asgardia’s laws. In such cases, the Head of Nation may lead Asgardian activities.
- Asgardia’s aerospace capabilities shall operate in accordance with international law, and in cooperation with the Earth States and international organisations to achieve peace in space and safeguard the Earth from space-originating threats.
C H A P T E R 7.
S T R U C T U R E
Article 26. National symbols
- Asgardia’s national symbols are:
- the national flag of Asgardia;
- the national coat of arms of Asgardia;
- the national anthem of Asgardia;
- Asgardia’s national symbols shall be chosen by voting and, subsequently, approved by the Parliament and the Head of Nation, in accordance with the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardia’s national motto is “One Humanity, One Unity”.
- The description of Asgardia’s national symbols and the procedure for using them shall be set by Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardian citizens shall respect and protect Asgardia’s national symbols. Any disrespect towards Asgardia’s national symbols shall be subject to liability in accordance with the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws.
- Any use of national symbols in violation of the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws shall be prosecuted in accordance with such laws.
Article 27. Language
- Asgardia’s official languages shall be 12 languages chosen by Asgardian citizens as the most commonly used languages of communication. The procedure for the selection and replacement of official languages, and the areas and specifics of their use shall be defined by Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardia shall guarantee equality of all official languages. No one may set restrictions or privileges on the use of a certain official language unless otherwise provided by the Constitution and/or laws of Asgardia.
- Asgardian citizens may use their native languages for communication, education, parenting, and creative pursuits. The Government shall guarantee that all may retain their native language and shall not obstruct its use or development.
- In its relations with the Earth States and international organisations, Asgardia shall use one of the 12 languages chosen by Asgardia and the interlocutor. Agreements, treaties, and other international instruments concluded in the name of Asgardia may be prepared in a different language requested by the other party on the mutual agreement of the parties.
- Asgardia shall strive towards a single Asgardian language in the future.
Article 28. Capital
- The space capital of Asgardia, Asgard or Space Asgard, shall be located on a currently active low-Earth orbit satellite or satellites that are part of an orbital constellation (localities). The capital may, subsequently, be located on a Space Ark and, eventually, on a Moon entity (localities).
- Space Asgard shall be an information portal and the virtual location of Asgardia’s governmental bodies, citizens, and infrastructure including businesses, banks, insurance companies, law firms, IT and telecommunication companies, educational establishments, etc. The capital shall be used for address purposes by Asgardian citizens, other persons, the Earth States, and international organisations to contact Asgardia’s governmental bodies and officials.
- Individual and collective enquiries by Asgardian citizens, other individuals, and legal entities to Asgardia’s governmental bodies and officials shall be sent electronically in a manner that allows the enquiring party to be identified and authenticated using the virtual resources of the capital of Asgardia.
- The Earth capital of Asgardia, Asgard or Earth Asgard, is the location of governmental bodies as required, and the location of software and hardware complexes of Asgardia’s Earth entities, if Asgardia has territory (natural, artificial on hard surfaces or water, lawfully located in Earth States or not owned by Earth States).
- The status of both capitals, the legal arrangements for their location, their operational procedures, and resource use shall be set by Asgardia’s laws.
Article 29. Foreign Relations
- Asgardia shall conduct its foreign policy based on its mission and Supreme Values, as well as its national interest.
- Achieving international legal recognition of Asgardia, including establishing diplomatic relations with the Earth States, and opening embassies and consulates in such States, shall be one of the objectives of Asgardia’s foreign policy.
- Asgardia shall open embassies in all continents of the Earth.
- Asgardia’s foreign policy shall be aimed at achieving a balance of general space and planetary interests, and its national interest.
- Asgardia shall build international relations and collaborates with other States on the basis of international treaties and agreements executed by authorised governmental bodies.
- The common norms of international law shall be components of Asgardia’s legal system. These norms shall have priority over Asgardia’s laws provided they do not threaten Asgardia’s supreme mission of its own existence.
- In resolving international disputes, Asgardia shall seek to reach settlements under general, comprehensive, and binding international arbitration proceedings
Article 30. Governance
- Asgardia shall be governed by its citizens through referenda.
- Governance of Asgardia shall be exercised by its separation into the legislative (Parliament), executive (Government), and judiciary (Court) branches.
- The Head of Nation shall be the head of the Government, and not of the other branches.
- The authority of governance bodies shall be set by the Constitution and laws of Asgardia.
- Asgardia, through its governance bodies and officials, shall be responsible for developing all areas of its life and activities, in accordance with its mission and Supreme Values, by exercising the authority specified by the Constitution and laws of Asgardia, and using its resources.
C H A P T E R 8.
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N
Article 31. Legal System
- The Constitution of Asgardia shall be the foundation of Asgardia’s legal system. Asgardia’s Constitution shall take precedence over all other legal documents and be directly applicable.
- Asgardia’s legal instruments shall include:
- referendum decisions;
- decrees of the Head of Nation;
- Acts of Parliament;
- Government resolutions;
- Resolutions of the Court;
- Resolutions of the Supreme Space Council;
- prosecution authority regulations;
- National Audit Office of Asgardia regulations;
- National Bank of Asgardia regulations;
- international treaties;
- Asgardia’s Constitution and laws apply throughout Asgardia’s territory and to all Asgardian citizens, irrespective of their location. In the event of differences between laws of the State in which an Asgardian citizen is located and Asgardia’s laws, if such differences are not addressed by an international treaty to which Asgardia is a party, the Asgardian citizen may operate on the basis of the law of the State in which he/she is located.
- Laws adopted in Asgardia shall not be contrary to Asgardia’s Constitution or distort its provisions in any other way. Laws, which are contrary to the Constitution, shall be repealed and declared void in accordance with the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws.
- International treaties executed by Asgardia shall not be contrary to its Constitution. Treaties executed by Asgardia shall become part of its legal system.
- Asgardia shall recognise generally accepted international principles and norms.
- The requirements for preparation, consideration, adoption, official publication, entry into force, interpretation and systematisation of laws, as well as legal force and methods of resolving contradictions between laws, shall set by the Constitution and relevant Asgardia’s laws.
Article 32. Asgardia’s Head of Nation
- The Head of Nation is the most senior official of the Government, the Guarantor of the Constitution, who sets the main directions of domestic and foreign policy, and represents Asgardia in the nation and abroad, acting in the capacity of Commander-in-Chief; this does not require power of attorney.
- The Founding Father and first Head of Nation elected on 20 January 2017 (20 January, 0001 in Asgardian calendar), and voting for this Constitution on 18 June 2017 (1 Asgard 0001 in Asgardian calendar), is Igor Ashurbeyli. As of the day of the acceptance of the Constitution of Asgardia, the Head of Nation holds this post for a period of 5 years.
- The maximum age limit for the Head of Nation position is 82 years.
- One year prior to reaching the age limit or in the event of a voluntary resignation, the Head of Nation shall nominate a candidate (on the basis of genealogy or on any other basis) for the position of Head of Nation. Two other candidates or the same candidate for the position of Head of Nation shall be nominated by the Parliament and the Supreme Space Council. The election of the Head of Nation is put to a referendum in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- The second and subsequent Heads of Nation can be any Asgardian citizen over the age of 50 and under the age of 65, who has held space citizenship for at least five years prior to being nominated, and who has the physical and mental health to perform the duties of Head of Nation.
- In the event that the Head of Nation dies, resigns, becomes permanently incapacitated or is declared missing, as well as in the circumstances stipulated by law where the Head of Nation is unable to perform his/her duties, such duties temporarily pass to the Chairman of the Supreme Space Council until the reasons, which prevented the Head of Nation from performing such duties, cease to be in effect or until the inauguration of the new Head of Nation.
- The procedure for electing the Head of Nation and organising their activities shall be set by Asgardia’s laws.
- The Head of Nation may be removed from his/her position by the Parliament, in accordance with the procedure set by Asgardia’s laws, in the event of: a. ongoing inability to perform his/her duties on health grounds; or
- the Prosecutor General accusing the Head of Nation of treason or other major crime, with such accusation confirmed by a conclusion of the Court;
- The Head of Nation:
- appoints and removes:
- the Supreme Justice of the Court;
- the Chairman of the Supreme Space Council;
- the Prosecutor General;
- the Chairman of the National Audit Office of Asgardia; • Asgardian representatives on the Earth continents; • Asgardians ambassadors in the States on Earth.
- has the right to veto candidates nominated in accordance with the Constitution and laws for the positions of: Chairman of the Government, members of Supreme Space Council, Chairman of the National Bank of Asgardia, Justices of the Court; and has the right to propose removal of persons who hold these positions;
- calls elections of members of Parliament in accordance with the Constitution and Asgardia’s laws, and has the right to dissolve Parliament;
- negotiates, signs, and ratifies international treaties, and accepts letters of credence and recall from diplomatic representatives;
- proposes bills to the Parliament, signs Acts adopted by the Parliament, or returns them without signature with the right to enact them, and has the right to veto Acts adopted by the Parliament;
- grants national governmental awards, and honorary titles;
- grants clemency;
- staffs the Administration of the Head of Nation, the body which supports the work of the Head of Nation;
- creates discussion and advisory bodies to support him/her in performing his/her duties;
- performs other duties stipulated by the Constitution and laws of Asgardia.
- The Head of Nation issues decrees that are mandatory for the governmental bodies and Asgardian citizens. Head of Nation decrees shall not be contrary to the Constitution and Asgardia’s laws.
Article 33. Parliament
- The Parliament shall be a unicameral legislature representing all Asgardian citizens.
- The Parliament shall consist of 150 members selected from all-national equal direct elections on the basis of language in proportion to the 12 official languages of Asgardia, taking into account an allocation to other language representatives in accordance with Asgardia’s laws
- Members of Parliament shall be elected for a term of five years from among Asgardian citizens who have reached the age of 40.
- Elections shall be conducted and votes shall be counted by the Central Electoral Commission in accordance with the election law of Asgardia.
- A member of Parliament can be elected for an unlimited number of terms, with the maximum age of 80.
- Members of Parliament shall elect a Chairman and his/her deputies from among the Members.
- Parliamentary sessions may be held in person, remotely, or electronically; they can be restricted or open, in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- Representatives of governmental bodies shall attend parliamentary sessions, if invited.
- The Head of Nation may dissolve the Parliament. The Prosecutor General may also propose the dissolution of Parliament to the Court. If the Court is satisfied with the arguments made in favour of dissolution, it may dissolve the Parliament in accordance with the parliamentary law.
- The Parliament’s powers shall include:
- adopting Asgardian law;
- appointing the Chairman of the Parliament, the Chairman of the National Bank of Asgardia, the Justices of the Court on the proposal of the Supreme Space Council; and removing them from post on the proposal of the Head of Nation or the Supreme Space Council;
- appointing and removing ministers from post on the proposal of the
Chairman of the Government;
- appointing and removing auditors of the National Audit Office of Asgardia from post;
- calling election for the Head of Nation;
- deciding on the resignation of the Government and individual ministers;
- approving the Head of Nation decisions to declare a state of emergency;
- calling referenda;
- holding parliamentary hearings and investigations, including summoning representatives of governmental bodies.
- The Parliament shall issue resolutions on matters within its purview, pursuant to the Constitution and laws of Asgardia. The parliamentary procedure for adopting Acts and responsibility for violation of this procedure shall be set by the parliamentary law.
- The Parliament shall comprise 12 permanent committees whose areas of responsibility correspond to the Government ministries.
Article 34. Government
- The Government shall be Asgardia’s supreme national executive body.
- The Government shall be a collective body that comprises the Chairman of the Government, his/her deputies, and ministers. The Government may hold meetings in person, remotely, or electronically.
- The framework of the nation’s executive bodies shall comprise 12 ministries corresponding to the permanent parliamentary committees.
- The Chairman of the Government shall be appointed by the Parliament on the proposal of the Supreme Space Council in agreement with the Head of Nation. Candidates for ministerial positions shall be nominated by the Chairman of the Government and approved by the Parliament. Ministers may be Asgardian citizens aged between 35 and 60, who have a degree, qualifications, and professional experience in relevant area, and the required physical and mental health to perform the duties of a minister. Members of the Government, who have a private business, shall put it into trust management for the duration of their Government position to avoid a conflict of interest on agreement with the Chairman of the Government.
- The Chairman of the Government shall set priority areas for the Government and organise its work, in accordance with Asgardia’s Constitution, laws, and Head of Nation decrees.
- The procedure for forming and organising the work of the Government shall be set by the Constitution and laws of Asgardia.
- The Government’s powers shall include:
- implementing and defending the Constitution;
- implementing international treaties, laws, Head of Nation decrees, and the resolutions of the Supreme Space Council;
- developing and introducing bills to the Parliament;
- developing and submitting draft budgets to the Parliament, and ensuring their implementation;
- supervising the implementation of Government resolutions and other regulations of executive bodies;
- ensuring that national interest is maintained and protected;
- ensuring national security and the security of its citizens, as well as safeguarding the Earth;
- granting and revoking Asgardian citizenship;
- foreign relations;
- managing the national debt;
- organising a system for information support for governmental administration and statistical monitoring;
- providing a scientific basis for the actions of the executive, developing administrative decisions, plans, forecasts, and governmental development programmes, and forecasting the consequences of planned decisions;
- monitoring social processes and interacting with citizens;
- supervising the work of governmental executive bodies;
- ensuring the rule of law, protecting the rights and obligations of citizens, and maintaining public order;
- organising a system to train staff for the civil service and creating a succession pool; and
- other matters in accordance with the Constitution and laws of Asgardia, Head of Nation decrees, and Asgardia’s international obligations.
- All Asgardian revenue and expenditure shall be included in the budget and be balanced. Meeting the needs of Asgardia’s administrative bodies and governmental enterprises shall not overload taxpayers and shall ensure uniformity of the basic living conditions in the Asgardian territory, in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- If the budget for the following year is not approved by law before the end of the financial year, prior to it becoming effective, the Government may conduct spending required to:
- maintain the institutions and implement measures set by the budgetary law;
- perform Asgardia’s legal obligations;
- continue other work and services if the budget for the previous year approved these amounts.
- The Government shall issue resolutions and other laws within its jurisdiction, in accordance with and for the performance of the Constitution, Head of Nation decrees, Supreme Space Council resolutions, international treaties, and Asgardia’s laws.
Article 35. Court
- Justice in Asgardia shall only be administered in court.
- The judiciary in Asgardia shall take the form of the Court, comprising a presidium and four panels for constitutional, civil, administrative, and criminal proceedings.
- The Court shall be headed by the Supreme Justice who is appointed by the Head of Nation. Justices of the Court shall be appointed by the Parliament on the proposal of the Supreme Space Council.
- Justices may be Asgardian citizens aged between 40 and 80, who have a first degree in law and experience of working in the legal profession for at least five years. The rules and procedures of the judiciary may set additional requirements in respect of Justices.
- The jurisdiction, composition of panels, procedure for forming and organising the work of the Court shall be set by Asgardia’s law.
- Court hearings shall be held in person or using electronic systems; they can be restricted or open to public in accordance to Asgardia’s laws.
- The Court shall be funded exclusively through the national budget, which shall facilitate full and independent justice in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- Justices shall enjoy immunity and independence, and be subject only to the Constitution and laws of Asgardia.
- Justices shall not to be replaced after five years in office, and after having been appointed by the Supreme Justice and further resolution by the Chairman of the Parliament, in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- Court rulings shall be mandatory for Asgardian citizens and all governmental bodies.
Article 36. Supreme Space Council
- The Supreme Space Council is a special governance body in Asgardia, which shall report to the Head of Nation, and shall analyse the adherence to laws and the actions of governmental bodies to Asgardia’s Supreme Values.
- The Supreme Space Council shall consist of its Chairman and members. Members of the Supreme Space Council may be any Asgardian citizens presented by the Chairman and nominated by the Head of Nation, aged between 50 and 80, who have particular achievements in the area of building the Nation, including economics, science, culture, art, education, the rule of law, healthcare, human rights and freedoms, parenting, sports, charity, and/ or other public or government achievements.
- The status, organisational foundations, powers, and operational procedures of the Supreme Space Council shall be set by the Constitution and Asgardia’s laws.
- Representatives of governmental bodies shall attend sessions of the Supreme Space Council, if invited. Governmental bodies shall respond to enquiries sent by the Supreme Space Council.
Article 37. Prosecutor General’s Office
- The Prosecutor General’s Office shall be Asgardia’s supervisory and monitoring authority for legal affairs of Asgardia.
- The Prosecutor General’s Office shall supervise and monitor compliance with Asgardia’s laws, the activities of governmental bodies, and the actions/ inactions of citizens with respect to the Constitution and Asgardia’s laws.
- The Prosecutor General shall be appointed for a five-year term, and can be removed from the office, by the Head of Nation on the proposal of the Supreme Space Council. The Prosecutor General shall appoint other prosecutors, in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
Article 38. National Audit Office of Asgardia
- The National Audit Office of Asgardia shall be Asgardia’s investigating and monitoring body for financial affairs of Asgardia.
- The National Audit Office of Asgardia shall be the permanent governmental financial audit body, with the obligation to monitor the effectiveness and coordination of budget and economic management formed by the Parliament, and to report to the Parliament in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- The National Audit Office of Asgardia shall comprise the Chairman of the Office and auditors. The Chairman of the National Audit Office of Asgardia shall be appointed for a five-year term, and can be removed from post, by the Parliament, based on the proposal of the Supreme Space Council. Auditors of the National Audit Office of Asgardia shall be appointed by the Parliament independently for a five-year term, based on the proposal by the Chairman of the National Audit Office of Asgardia.
Article 39. National Bank of Asgardia
- The National Bank of Asgardia shall be responsible for the exchange rate, emission and financial circulation, stability of the national currency, and liquidity of the banking system. Activities of the National Bank of Asgardia shall be regulated in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- The National Bank of Asgardia shall support the development of the banking network of the national and private banks, and regulate the conditions and profitability of their financial activities. Banking secret shall be guaranteed by the Government. Banking secret may be limited by Asgardia’s laws or an international agreement.
- The Chairman of the National Bank of Asgardia shall be appointed for a fiveyear term, and can be removed from the position, by the Parliament, based on the proposal of the Head of Nation or the Supreme Space Council.
Article 40. Decision-Making and Implementation
- The Head of Nation shall set the priorities for domestic and foreign policy by making annual and extraordinary addresses to Asgardian citizens, at inperson and remote meetings of representatives of the supreme governance bodies of Asgardia, and issuing other decrees within his/her authority. The Head of Nation’s address shall serve as the document used to plan the Nation’s domestic and foreign policy for the upcoming year and beyond, with the aim of performing Asgardia’s mission. The Head of Nation’s address shall be binding on all Asgardian national bodies and officials for implementation.
- Asgardia’s laws, plans, and governmental development programmes shall be developed and adopted in accordance with the Head of Nation’s address to implement the Constitution and perform Asgardia’s mission. Asgardia’s laws shall regulate key social relations.
- Asgardian citizens may initiate the making of government administrative decisions and participate in their preparation by means of electronic voting (right to propose legislation), in accordance with Asgardia’s laws.
- The Government, its ministries, and other governmental bodies shall issue statutory instruments to ensure the implementation of Asgardia’s laws.
- Asgardia’s governmental bodies monitor the practical application of adopted/issued laws to improve legal instruments within their purview. Monitoring and supervision of the implementation of adopted/issued laws shall be performed by Asgardia’s supervisory authorities and by Asgardian citizens, by using the mechanisms for public monitoring by means of electronic voting.
C H A P T E R 9.
A D O P T I O N A N D A M E N D M E N T O F
T H E C O N S T I T U T I O N
Article 41. Adoption of the Constitution
Asgardia’s Constitution shall be adopted by means of an electronic voting by the citizens of Asgardia – a referendum.
Article 42. First Constitution
The first Constitution of Asgardia shall be put for voting by Igor Ashurbeyli, the Founding Father and the Head of Nation elected at a general voting on 20 January 2017 by 167837 Asgardians (20 January 0001 in Asgardian calendar). The voting on adopting the first Asgardian Constitution shall be open to persons over the age of 18, who have submitted their personal data via the Internet, and agreed to the terms and conditions published on the Asgardian website www.asgardia.space, before the date of finalisation of the voting as per the Head of Nation decree. These persons are considered Asgardian citizens on a preferential basis prior to the adoption of the law on space citizenship of Asgardia and will retain this status subsequently, if desired.
Article 43. Quorum for Adoption of the Constitution
Asgardia’s Constitution shall be adopted if, in the period of the vote, more than half of the Asgardian citizens who took part in the vote, voted in favour and, for the adoption of the first Constitution, the number of persons pursuant to Article 42 of this Constitution.
Article 44. Amendment of the Constitution
Asgardia’s Constitution may be amended by means of an electronic voting by Asgardian citizens – a referendum.
Article 45. Procedure for Amendment of the Constitution
Proposals on amending the Constitution may be made by the Head of Nation, the Supreme Space Council, or the Parliament.
C H A P T E R 10.
T R A N S I T I O N A L A N D F I N A L P R O V I S I O N S
Article 46. Special rights of the Head of Nation before the election of the
Parliament and the formation of the Government
In the absence of Asgardia’s laws and for the purposes of implementing the provisions of the Constitution before the election of the Parliament and the formation of the first Government, the Head of Nation shall issue necessary decrees that will remain in force until respective laws are adopted.
Article 47. Special procedure for the election of a new Head of Nation
If election for a new Head of Nation is scheduled within the first five years of the adoption of the Constitution, the requirements of Asgardia’s Constitution concerning the candidate for the position of Head of Nation holding space citizenship for at least five years do not apply.
Article 48. Deadline for the election of the Parliament
Elections for members of Parliament shall be called no later than six months after the adoption of the Constitution. The procedure for holding the first election shall be set by a decree of the Head of Nation, in accordance with the Constitution of Asgardia. The law on subsequent elections of members of Parliament shall be adopted after the formation of the Parliamen.
Article 49. Deadline for forming the Government
The Government shall be formed, in accordance with the Constitution and laws of Asgardia, no later than three months after the parliamentary election.
Article 50. Effectiveness of the Constitution
The Constitution of Asgardia becomes effective on the day of its official publication on the official national site of Asgadia www.asgardia.space on the basis of the voting on 18 June 2017 (1 Asgard 0001 of Asgardian calendar).
The Constitution of Asgardia was developed by the following core group with extensive support from their expert teams:
Lena De Winne
Asgardian community actively participated in developing the Constitution. A very special thanks to the volunteers who compiled and submitted all community feedback. Asgardia is grateful to all Asgardians who contributed to the development of the Constitution through feedback and participation in discussions.
Australia: Bellamy Paul, Gittins Benjamin; Belgium: Martin Simon; Brazil: Guttau Humberto; Canada: Berg Rebekah, Denner Christopher, Quesnel Patrice, Skeiswanne John, Spencer Tamara; Egypt: Mamdouh Mohammed; Finland: Viikate Matti; Germany: Kaschubowski Matthias; Ghana: Ofosu-Hene Samuel; Greece: Faroupos Christos; India: Chaturvedi Utkarsh, Chaudhary Nikhil Kumar; Iran: Ghodrati Fatemeh; Italy: De Rosa Stephano; Japan: Bartlett Richie; Kazakhstan: Linda Yeleussizova; Morocco: Ledoux Jewell Zahira; Nigeria: Okoroafor Chukwudifu Uzoma; Pakistan: Khawaja Fahad Nazir; Russian Federation: Onoprienko Vladimir, Novoseltsev Dmitry; Spain: Buono Susana; Sweden:
Jacobsen Eric; United Kingdom: Singh-Bartlett Warren; United States: Case Trevyn David, Cole Christina, Dayish Andrew, Fontana Cha, Fuller-Senft William G., Lee Thomas C., Papineau, Peter, Pounds Kevin, Roution Christina; Venezuela: Madonna Alberto.
Editor of the English text: Tanveer Ahmad